ADHD

ADHD and ADHD (Inattentive) – previously known as ADD

PRIMARY CHARACTERSITICS

Overactivity

  • Difficulty remaining still or staying seated
  • Often wriggle arms and legs and fidget in wormy-squirmy fashion
  • Often fiddle with objects
  • Constantly on the go as if driven by a motor
  • At home, run and climb all over the place
  • Frequently move excessively, even during sleep
  • May have difficulty being quiet
  • (Clothes and shoes tend to wear out much faster than normal)

Inattention

  • May have poor concentration/attention or difficulty keeping his/her mind on work
  • Don’t seem to listen
  • May have difficulty starting and/or finishing tasks
  • Make careless mistakes
  • May give up easily or be easily bored

Distractibility

  • Tends to switch back and forth between tasks
  • Frequently learn irrelevant material and not what they were expected to learn

Impulsivity

  • Often act quickly without thinking e.g. run into street without checking for cars
  • Seems to have defective hindsight (don’t learn from experience)
  • Tend to be physically accident-prone
  • Difficulty following rules or waiting their turn
  • May interrupt others or talk too much

Excitability

  • May be easily excited
  • Typically have low frustration tolerance (‘short fuses’)
  • Wants to have playmates but are often upset or ‘set off’ by them
  • Extremely emotional

Disorganization

  • Difficulty organizing tasks and activities
  • Poor time management
  • May have poor planning and/or prioritizing skills
  • May complete projects at the last minute
  • Often mislay or lose supplies, books, homework, day planners, clothes and ever treasured possessions.

SECONDARY CHARACTERISTICS

Peer Relationship Problems

  • Difficulty with friendships, poor social skills and limited social connections
  • May appear to be unaccepted by the group
  • Often not sensitive to needs of others
  • Often miss cues, misread social situations
  • Tend to take a bossy ‘play-it-my-way-or-not-at-all’ approach
  • Difficulty keeping friends

Learning Problems

  • Academic struggles (reading, spelling and/or maths).
  • May have difficulty learning and/or remembering concepts
  • May need extra explanations or help

Familial Problems

  • May feel that parents do not love or notice him/her
  • May feel unjustly criticized and/or punished at home
  • Tend to catalyze family conflict
  • Parents may disagree about how to handle certain situations and end up arguing or taking different directions

Low Self-Concept

  • Often lacks in confidence in learning abilities
  • Often lacks confidence in social relationships